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Building Apache 2.2.3 or 2.0.59, with mod_ssl, mod_security, mod_deflate

Building a Web Server, for Windows


  • Microsoft Visual C++
    [we will use Visual Studio 98 / VC++ 6.0]
    [Visual Studio .NET will also work with the same instructions]
  • Gawk
    [needed for the Apache2 build process]
  • [optional] zlib : mod_deflate source
  • [optional] OpenSSL : mod_ssl source
    • Perl[native Perl, not Cygwin Perl]
    • Additional build tools: bison, flex, sed
  • [optional] mod_security source


Our Configuration

  • Build directory : C:\build
  • Install to:
    • Apache 2.0: C:\www\Apache2
    • Apache 2.2: C:\www\Apache22
  • System:Port : localhost:80
  • Module type : dynamically loaded modules, *.so (and *.dll)
  • [optional] Additional modules over base : mod_deflate, mod_ssl, mod_security
  • Perl.exe path : C:\www\perl\bin
  • awk, bison, flex, sed path : C:\GnuWin32\bin
    [Read below 'Notes' for clarification on gawk/awk]
  • System PATH : contains C:\www\perl\bin and C:\GnuWin32\bin
    [Read below 'Notes' for clarification on system path]


  • When using the command-line (command-shell) with VC++, always set the Build Environment and update the System PATH to reflect the tools used in the build --> Guide: Working with the Command Shell
  • This Guide can be used without the inclusion of modules mod_ssl, mod_security, and mod_deflate -- simply ignore the related Sections, material, and tools
  • The System PATH must contain the path to perl.exe and the other build tools
  • file 'gawk.exe' must be renamed to 'awk.exe' for the Apache2 build process
  • If using Cygwin 'gawk', delete the symlink 'awk.exe' and rename 'gawk.exe' to 'awk.exe' under ...\cygwin\bin

Setup for mod_deflate

To build mod_deflate, the zlib source code directory is placed under C:\build\httpd-2.x.x\srclib (as httpd-2.x.x\srclib\zlib). The main Apache 2.0/2.2 build process will automatically compile the zlib source code and build mod_deflate. Note that to build zlib v1.2.3 under Apache 2.0, the C:\build\httpd-2.0.x\modules\filters\mod_deflate.dep/dsp/mak files will need to be patched. Do NOT perform this patching step if building mod_deflate under Apache 2.2, or if building against zlib v1.1.4.

Patch mod_deflate (zlib 1.2.3) to build under Apache 2.0...

  • Download package Patch (binary zip or setup) and install, making sure that patch.exe can be located under the PATH and that libs libiconv-2.dll and libintl-2.dll are under the same directory as the patch binary.
    [the patch utility is provided under the DeveloperSide.NET GnuWin32 tools distribution]
  • Save zlib patch file as C:\build\httpd-2.0.x\zlib.patch
  • ...\httpd-2.0.x> patch -p1 < zlib.patch

[Optional] Build zlib with ASM options...

  • ...\httpd-2.x.x\srclib\zlib\contrib\masmx86> mkasm.bat
  • Copy files gvmat32.obj, inffas32.obj, gvmat32c.obj to the base zlib directory.
  • ...\httpd-2.x.x\srclib\zlib> nmake -f win32\Makefile.msc LOC="-DASMV -DASMINF" OBJA="gvmat32c.obj gvmat32.obj inffas32.obj"

Setup for mod_ssl

To build mod_ssl, the OpenSSL source code directory is placed under C:\build\httpd-2.x.x\srclib (as httpd-2.x.x\srclib\openssl). The OpenSSL source is then manually compiled to prepare for the main Apache 2.0/2.2 build process.

Configure the build...

['--openssldir=DIR' tells openssl.exe where to look for openssl.cnf]
[we must use unix forward style slashes(/), instead of windows style back slashes(\)]
  • > cd /d C:\build\httpd-2.x.x\srclib\openssl
  • For Apache 2.2
    > perl Configure --openssldir=C:/www/Apache22/bin VC-WIN32
  • For Apache 2.0
    > perl Configure --openssldir=C:/www/Apache2/bin VC-WIN32

Use x86 assembly functions for performance improvements...

Note that if your Compiler or System does not include MASM (ml.exe error): run 'ms\do_ms' instead.

> ms\do_masm


> nmake -f ms\ntdll.mak

[optional] Test the built OpenSSL package...

  • > cd out32dll
  • > ..\ms\test

Apache 2.2.3 Patch

The Apache 2.2.3 Windows source has problems in four projects dsp and mak files. Also, a perl script has to be run to convert the projects to the VC++ version that is being used to compile the code. Both of these problems should be fixed under Apache 2.2.4

Download and extract the following 4 dsp and mak project files to the given directories...

  • modules/aaa/mod_authn_dbd.dsp\mak
  • modules/filters/mod_ext_filter.dsp\mak
  • modules/metadata/mod_usertrack.dsp\mak
  • support/htpasswd.dsp\mak

If using VS.NET 2005 to compile Apache 2.2.3, download and run 'perl -2005' (For VC++ 6.0: 'perl -6' but this is unnecessary).

Build/Install Apache

Apache 2.0/2.2 can be built using the command line, or with the Visual Studio Workspace IDE. The command line build is the perfered choice.

Command-Line Build Instructions

Build Apache 2.0/2.2 in Release mode under C:\www\Apache22 (for 2.2) or C:\www\Apache2 (for 2.0), with the server listening on localhost (, your local system) on port 80 (regular HTTP port).

  • For Apache 2.2
    ...\httpd-2.2.x> nmake /f SERVERNAME="localhost" PORT=80 INSTDIR="C:\www\Apache22" installr
  • For Apache 2.0
    ...\httpd-2.0.x> nmake /f SERVERNAME="localhost" PORT=80 INSTDIR="C:\www\Apache2" installr
Visual Studio Workspace IDE Build Instructions

Apache.dsw is the Visual Studio workspace, which exposes the entire list of working .dsp projects that are required for the complete Apache 2.0/2.2 binary release.

  • Load Apache.dsw
  • "The project Apache.dsp needs to be converted to the Visual C++ 7.0 project format"
    • Click 'Yes To All'
  • Right click 'BuildBin' under Solution Explorer
    • Select 'Set as StartUp Project'
  • Select 'Solution 'Apache'' under Solution Explorer
    • Change 'Active Config' value under Properties Window from 'Debug' to 'Release'
  • [If you are not building mod_ssl and mod_deflate] Note that by default, under the IDE build, the build process will try to build modules abs, mod_ssl, and mod_deflate. If the source code and libs of the additional modules have not been provided, the mentioned modules will need to be deselected.
    • Under the Build menu, select Configuration Manager
    • Deselect 'abs', 'mod_deflate', 'mod_ssl'
    • Click 'Close'
  • Note that with the Workspace IDE build, by default, Apache 2.0/2.2 is installed into <drive>:\Apache2. We are installing to <drive>:\www\Apache22 (for 2.2) or to <drive>:\www\Apache2 (for 2.0).
    • For 'BuildBin' and 'InstallBin' -- Right click each under Solution Explorer and perform these steps
      • Select 'Properties'
      • Select 'NMake' under 'Configurations Properties'
      • Update : 'Build Command Line', 'Rebuild All Command Line', 'Output'
        Replace "\Apache2\..." with "\www\Apache22\..." (for 2.2) or "\www\Apache2\..." (for 2.0)
      • Click 'OK'
  • Select 'Build Solution' under the Build menu

Setup for mod_security

To build mod_security, the built Apache2 libraries and include files are used...

Edit file C:\build\modsecurity-apache-1.9.4\apache2\ and change the BASE path to the built Apache2 dir...

  • Apache 2.2
    BASE = "C:/www/Apache22/"
  • Apache 2.0
    BASE = "C:/www/Apache2/"

If building against Apache 2.2, edit file C:\build\modsecurity-apache-1.9.4\apache2\ and update the following line to reflect the new Apache 2.2 library names...

  • Original line
    LIBS = $(BASE)\lib\libhttpd.lib $(BASE)\lib\libapr.lib $(BASE)\lib\libaprutil.lib
  • Updated line
    LIBS = $(BASE)\lib\libhttpd.lib $(BASE)\lib\libapr-1.lib $(BASE)\lib\libaprutil-1.lib

Build mod_security...

...\modsecurity-apache-1.9.4\apache2> nmake /f

Copy generated file mod_security.dll to dir C:\www\Apache[2,22]\modules and file mod_security.lib to dir C:\www\Apache[2,22]\lib

Additional Steps and Information

During the Apache 2.0/2.2 build process, the needed OpenSSL files (libeay32.dll, ssleay32.dll, openssl.exe) are placed into C:\www\Apache[2,22]\bin, except openssl.cnf. openssl.cnf is the OpenSSL configuration file. This file needs be copied manually....

From directory ...\httpd-2.x.x\srclib\openssl\apps copy file openssl.cnf to C:\www\Apache22\bin (2.2) or C:\www\Apache22\bin (2.0) [note that .cnf file extensions are invisible, by default, on Windows 2000/XP]

Apache v2.x (win32) file ssl.conf contains a syntax problem that needs to be addressed....

Change 'SSLMutex file:logs/ssl_mutex' under ssl.conf to 'SSLMutex default' [the default 'file:logs/ssl_mutex' option is not available under win32]

Update Configuration Files

Now that the Apache httpd Web-Server has been successfully built -- [before proceeding with startup] configuration file httpd.conf will need to be updated (for mod_deflate and other changes) and an SSL Private/Public Key-Pair will need to be created (for mod_ssl)...

Note that if "localhost" will be used, make sure that file %SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts contains line... <tab> localhost

mod_deflate requires several additions and updates to be made to httpd.conf, the Apache 2.0/2.2 configuration file.

Open C:\www\Apache[2,22]\conf\httpd.conf, add...

LoadModule deflate_module modules/
LoadModule headers_module modules/

<IfModule deflate_module>
	DeflateFilterNote Input instream
	DeflateFilterNote Output outstream
	DeflateFilterNote Ratio ratio
	LogFormat '"%r" %{outstream}n/%{instream}n (%{ratio}n%%)' deflate
	CustomLog logs/deflate.log deflate

	<Location />
		AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css

		 # Netscape 4.x has some problems...
		BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html

		# Netscape 4.06-4.08 have some more problems
		BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4\.0[678] no-gzip

		# MSIE masquerades as Netscape, but it is fine
		BrowserMatch \bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html

		# Don't compress images
		SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \
		\.(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$ no-gzip dont-vary

		<IfModule headers_module>
			# Make sure proxies don't deliver the wrong content
			Header append Vary User-Agent env=!dont-vary

The default Apache DocumentRoot/Webroot is set to ...\Apache22\htdocs (for 2.2) or ...\Apache2\htdocs (for 2.0) -- our Guides and our Web-Server Suite has this changed to \www\webroot -- update DocumentRoot if you are also going to use our other Guides. Note that when testing Apache, you will need to make/copy index.html and/or other files into the new directory, as it will be empty.

Open C:\www\Apache[2,22]\conf\httpd.conf...

Locate line DocumentRoot "/www/Apache[2,22]/htdocs", replace with...

DocumentRoot "/www/webroot"

Locate line <Directory "/www/Apache[2,22]/htdocs">, replace with...

<Directory "/www/webroot">

Startup and Operation

Executables 'httpd.exe' (for 2.2) and 'apache.exe' (for 2.0) are located under directory 'C:\www\Apache22\bin' (for 2.2) or 'C:\www\Apache2\bin' (for 2.0) - which should be included into the System PATH. If this dir is not in the PATH, 'httpd.exe' or 'apache.exe' should be run from a command line that is under 'C:\www\Apache[2,22]\bin'.

Install the 'Apache2' Service...

[this will start 'Apache2' automatically from now on, but not the first time]
['-D SSL' option will cause Apache to load mod_ssl; leave this out if mod_ssl is not needed]
  • Apache 2.2: > httpd -D SSL -k install
  • Apache 2.0: > apache -D SSL -k install

Start the 'Apache2' Service...

[or use 'net start Apache2']
  • Apache 2.2: > httpd -k start
  • Apache 2.0: > apache -k start

Additional Commands...

Stop 'Apache2' Service...

[or use 'net stop Apache2']
  • Apache 2.2: > httpd -k stop
  • Apache 2.0: > apache -k stop

Graceful restart 'Apache2' Service...

  • Apache 2.2: > httpd -k restart
  • Apache 2.0: > apache -k restart

Uninstall 'Apache2' Service...

  • Apache 2.2: > httpd -k uninstall
  • Apache 2.0: > apache -k uninstall


To test the regular (port 80) server enter url : http://localhost

To test the SSL (port 443) server enter url : https://localhost

To test Server via telnet...

Run 'cmd.exe', execute 'telnet'

  • (Windows 2000)
    Microsoft Telnet> set LOCAL_ECHO
  • (Windows XP)
    Microsoft Telnet> set LOCALECHO
  • Microsoft Telnet> open localhost 80
  • HEAD / HTTP/1.0 (enter)(enter)